Peer Reviewed Publications

Below are a list of peer-reviewed publications that Joshua has worked on, or is currently working on.

Accepted manuscripts:

Tuttle, Joshua D., and Shannon N. Davis. Forthcoming (2017). “Secularization and Gender Ideology: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Trends in Gender Ideology in the Contemporary United States.” In Women and Religion: Contemporary and Future Challenges in the Global Era. Edited by Elisabetta Ruspini, Glenda Tibe Bonifacio, and Consuelo Corradi. Bristol: Policy Press.

Abstract: Extant research demonstrates that egalitarian gender ideologies have become increasingly prominent in the U.S. since the 1970s. The prominence of these ideologies grew at a fast pace from the mid-1970s to the early 1990s, reversed slightly between 1994 and 2000, and subsequently continued to grow. The trend towards gender egalitarianism is historically correlated to another interesting cultural trend: the growing prominence of the religiously unaffiliated population. In 1977, the religiously unaffiliated accounted for approximately six percent of the total U.S. population. This figure had increased to approximately eight percent by 1990, and even further, to approximately fourteen percent in 2000. By 2014, the religiously unaffiliated accounted for approximately twenty-one percent of the total U.S. population. This proposed book chapter will consider the significance of this historical correlation through a statistical analysis of relevant survey data, spanning the years 1977 to 2014. This analysis will be guided by the following research question: is the rampant growth of the religiously unaffiliated population significantly related to the trend toward gender egalitarianism in the United States?

Stephens, Erin, Joshua D. Tuttle, and James C. Witte. Forthcoming (2017). “Interactions between Gender and Immigration in Wage Inequality among STEM Workers, 1980-2010.” In Gender (In)equality: Stalled Revolutions and Shifting Terrains in the 21st Century. Edited by Shannon N. Davis, Sarah Winslow, and David Maume. Oakland: University of California Press.

Abstract: In the 20th century, the American workforce transformed as the proportion of women and immigrants in the workforce grew rapidly. Women grew from being approximately a third of the labor force in 1950 to over 60 percent in 2000. The immigrant population swelled with the passing of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, that ended nation-based quotas and policies of exclusion for Asian and Latin American countries and allowed naturalized immigrants to sponsor family members for immigration. Not only did this act facilitate the entry of a larger and more heterogeneous pool of immigrants, but women immigrants steadily became a larger proportion of the immigrant population. Between 1950 and 2010 the foreign born population in the U.S. grew from 7.5% to 12.9%, while the share of women among the foreign born grew from 48.7% to 51.0%. Combining these two trends, along with overall population growth in the U.S., the estimated number of foreign born women in the country grew nearly four-fold, from 5.5 million to 20.4 million. Despite the growth in labor force participation for both groups, compensation for work has been characterized by a different trend. While the gap between men’s and women’s pay closed from approximately 60 percent in 1955 to 74 percent in the mid-1990s, there has been little change to the gap since then. However, the trend for wages between immigrant men and women tells a different story. Between 1950 and 2000, the gap between immigrant men and women closed from 67 percent to 83 percent. Between 2000 and 2010, the gap closed further, to 87 percent. There is an abundance of research that explores the stagnation in the pay gap among the general population, but what explains the variation in the pay gap among immigrants? This chapter explores trends in wage earnings for immigrant men and women from 1980 to 2010 with an interest in understanding the interaction between gender and immigrant characteristics as it relates to gender pay disparities. In the context of laws regarding gender equity and immigrant rights in the workplace, we review common explanations for the gender pay gaps for women and men more broadly and specific factors as they pertain to immigrants. Using U.S. Census data 1980 to 2010, we then present a case study on immigrants in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) occupations to explore how certain factors help explain gender pay disparities between high-skill immigrant men and women over time. Our findings indicate that within this group, the gap closed significantly between 1980 and 1990, held constant from 1990 to 2000, and a slight decline in the gap between 2000 and 2010. Further, we see among STEM workers that immigrant men earn more than native born men and immigrant women also earn more than native born women. Finally, among all STEM workers the wages of native born men were relatively flat between 1980 and 2010 such that earnings of immigrant women were nearly equal to those of native born men in 2010.

Tuttle, Joshua D., and Shannon N. Davis. 2015. “Religion, Infidelity, and Divorce: Reexamining the Effect of Religious Behavior on Divorce Among Long-Married Couples.” Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 56(6).

Abstract: Previous scholarship linking marital infidelity and divorce has tended to have 2 limitations: focusing on young marriages and overlooking the influence of religiosity. Using data from the panel study of Marital Instability over the Life Course (N = 763), we address both of these limitations. Using structural equation modeling and proportional hazards modeling, we examine the effect of religiosity on marital infidelity and subsequent divorce among couples married for at least 12 years. Our analyses reveal that religiosity reduces the likelihood of marital infidelity among these couples. However the effect of religiosity on the likelihood of a subsequent divorce is more complicated: Religiosity appears to indirectly reduce the likelihood of a subsequent divorce by increasing levels of marital happiness. Surprisingly, no influence is found of marital infidelity on marital stability or divorce. Implications for scholars concerned with marital stability are discussed.

Manuscripts Under Review:

Davis, Shannon N., and Joshua D. Tuttle. “Context, Opportunity, and Demands: Satisfaction with Work-Life Balance in 26 Countries.” Under review at the Journal of Comparative Family Studies.

Abstract: Given the burgeoning literature on the work-family nexus, the dearth of scholarship on satisfaction with work-life balance is surprising.  In this paper, we use multi-level models to build on the Demand-Resource model to predict satisfaction with work-life balance among partnered individuals in 26 European countries (N = 7,990). We find support for individual-level measures of work and non-work lives influencing work-life balance satisfaction.  We also document how nation-level gender inequality moderates the influence of family-to-work conflict on satisfaction with work-life balance.  The results demonstrate the importance of investigating the work-family nexus within and across national contexts, yielding implications for understanding the 21st century family.